Smoking and its Association With Ectopic Pregnancy: A Meta Analysis

Ridha Rossela Yanuari1), Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari2)Vitri Widyaningsih2)


1)Masters Program in Public Health,Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Over 98% of ectopic pregnancies implant in the Fallopian tube but the aetiology of tubal implantation is largely unknown. Transport of the embryo through the Fallopian tube is controlled by a combination of smooth muscle contractility and ciliary beating. Epidemiological studies have shown that cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for tubal ectopic pregnancy. Despite, the exact mechanism by which cigarette smoking leads to ectopic pregnancy remains uncertain. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore the the association between smoking and ectopic pregnancy.

Subjects and Method: A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out using PRISMA flow diagram. The articles were collected from PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases, which published from 2000 to 2020. The inclusion criteria were full text, and case control study. The keywords used “smoking AND ectopic pregnancy” AND multivariate; smoking OR cigarette AND “ectopic pregnancy” OR “tubal pregnancy” AND multivariate. Articles that met the criteria were analysis using Revman 5.3 software application.

Results: Meta-analysis from 7 studies showed that smoking increased the risk of ectopic pregnancy 2.20 times in women of reproductive age than those who did not smoke (aOR= 2.20; 95% CI= 1.45 to 3.34; p= 0.002).

Conclusion: Smoking increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy.

Keywords: ectopic pregnancy, smoking, meta-analysis.

CorrespondenceRidha Rossela Yanuari. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: ridharosselayanuari@gmail.­com. Mobile: 085747311182.


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