Socio-Economic and Environmental Risk Factors of Tuberculosis in Wonosobo, Central Java, Indonesia


Rita Dian Pratiwi

Health Information Management, Graduate Program in Public Health, Gadjah Mada University

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis incidence has been increasingly high in Wonosobo, Central Java, over the past years. The occurrence of tuberculo-sis can not be separated from the geographic, demographic, and socio-economic conditions. Poor environment is a suitable for bacteria proliferation and transmission. This study aimed to examine socio-economic and environmental risk factors of tuberculosis.

SUBJECT AND METHODS:
This was a case control study conducted in Wonosobo, Central Java. A sample of 70 tuberculosis cases and 70 controls was collected for this study. The dependent variable was tubercu-losis status. The independent variables included history of contact, house ventilation, humidity, house temperature, house density, kitchen smoke, and family income. The data was analyzed with a multiple logistic regression.

RESULTS:
Of the 140 study subjects, 33 (47%) had primary education, and 21 (30%) were farmers. People who had contact history with tubercu-losis case had 10 times as many risk of contracting tuberculosis than those did not have contact history (OR=10.00; p<0.001). People who lived in a house with poor ventilation had 2.2 times as many risk of contracting tuberculosis than those lived in a house with good ventilation (OR=2.20; p<0.018). High humidity increased the risk of tuberculosis 4 times as many as low humidity (OR=4.00; p=0.001). Living in house with higher temperature increased the risk of tuberculosis 3.8 times as many as lower temperature (OR=3.80; p=0.009). Living in a crowded house increase the risk of tuberculosis 5 times as many as living in a scant house (OR=5.00; p<0.001). Kitchen smoke increased the risk of tuberculosis 2.5 times as many as without smoke (OR=2.50; p=0.007). Low family income increased the risk of tuberculosis 3 times as many as high family income (OR=3.00; p=0.002).

CONCLUSION:
History of contact, poor house ventilation, high humidity, hot house temperature, crowded house, kitchen smoke, and low family income, are risk factors for tuberculosis in Wonosobo, Central Java.

Keywords:
tuberculosis, environmental factor, socio-economic factor

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/theicph.2016.027

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