Pizza and Humburger Consumption as Risk Factors for Overweight in Adolescents in Jambi

Ummi Kalsum and Sahridayanti Nainggolan

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jambi University
Faculty of Public Health, Indonesia University, Jakarta


Overweight and obesity are the result of “caloric imbalance” too few calories expended for the amount of calories consumed and are affected by various genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors. Childhood obesity has both immediate and long-term health effects. Obese youth are more likely to have cardiovascular disease, prediabetes, bone and joint problems, sleep apnea, social and psychological problems (e.g. stigmatization and poor self-esteem). This study aimed to estimate the effect of pizza, hamburger, and food consumption pattern, as risk factors for overweight in adolescents.

This was a cross sectional study using primary data from 137 students aged 14 to 17 years old at SMAN 5 High School in Jambi City, Jambi. The independent variable was junk food consumption pattern, which included pizza and hamburger; instant noodle; popcorn, chips and French fries; soft drink; tea, coffee, cappuccino and cookies; cake and sweet foods. They were assessed using food frequency questionnaire. The dependent variable was nutritional status. It was measured by Body Mass Index for Age (BMI for Age) using WHO Anthropometry software. The counfounding variables were gender, maternal education, maternal employment status, paternal employment status, and family income. The data was analyzed by a multiple logistic regression with Prevalence Odds Ratio (POR).

RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 23.4%. The consumption pattern: (1) Pizza and hamburgers (13.1%); (2) Instant noodles (10.2%); (3) Soft drinks (11.7%); (4) Cake and sweet foods (33.6%); (5) Pop corn, chips and french fries (47.4%); and (6) Tea, coffee, cappuccino and cookies (45.3%). Overweight and obesity in adolescent was strongly associated with pizza and hamburger consumption (POR=3.55; 95%CI=1.08 to 11.68; p=0.037), after controlling for the effect of confounding factors. Higher maternal education (POR=2.17; 95%CI= 0.44 to 10.73; p=0.341), employed father (POR=1.96; 95%CI=0.81 to 4.77; p=0.135), increased the risk for overweight and obesity. Instant noodle consumption habit (POR=0.21; 95%CI=0.23 to 1.83; p=0.16), and tea, coffee, cappuccino and cookies consumption habit (POR=0.45; 95% CI=0.18 to 1.09; p=0.079), decreased the risk for overweight and obesity in adolescents.

Pizza and hamburger consumption habits are strong predictors for overweight and obesity in adolescents.

Keywords: overweight, obesity, junk food, adolescents


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