What are the Factors that Decrease the Risk of Depression in Postpartum Women? A New Evidence from Sukoharjo District, Central Java

Ryanawati Putriarsih1), Uki Retno Budihastuti2), Bhisma Murti1)

1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta



Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of childbearing. It causes disease burden inchildbearing women both in highand low-income countries. PPD leads to reduced quality of life and functional capacity. Little is known about the determinants of PPD in Indonesia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and analyze the determinants of PPD in Sukoharjo, Central Java.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at community health centers in Sukoharjo District, Central Java, from November to December, 2017. A total sample of 200 postpartum mothers was selected for this study using cluster random sampling, with community health center as the cluster. The dependent variable was PPD. The independent variables were maternal age, parity, labor complication, maternal education, self-efficacy, family income, coping strategy, unwanted pregnancy, and family support. The data on PPD was measured by Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS). The data on the other variables were collected by questionnaire. Path analysis was employed for data analysis.

Results: PPD prevalence in Sukoharjo, Central Java, was 18.5%. The risk of PPD increased with labor complication (b= 3.14, SE= 0.45, p< 0.001), unwanted pregnancy (b= 1.54, SE= 0.45, p<0.001), and low family income (b= -0.05, SE= 0.01, p< 0.001). The risk of PPD decreased with age (b= -0.07, SE= 0.03, p= 0.028), stronger self-efficacy (b= -0.55, SE= 0.09, p< 0.001), and improved coping strategy (b= -0.56, SE= 0.03, p= 0.064). The risk of PPD was indirectly increased by younger age, parity, weaker family support, and lower family income. The risk of PPD was indirectly decreased by increasing age and higher familyincome, higher maternal education, and stronger family support.

Conclusion: PPD prevalenceis 18.5% in Sukoharjo, Central Java. The risk of PPDincreases with labor complication, unwanted pregnancy, and low family income, but decreases with age, stronger self-efficacy, and improved coping strategy.

Keywords: postpartum depression, prevalence, determinant, path analysis

Correspondence: Ryanwati Putriarsih. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: puuputriana@gmail.com. Mobile: +6281393085790.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/mid.icph.2018.03.06

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