The Association between Cognitive Level, Spiritual Index, and Depression in the Elderly

Ninik Nurhidayah1,2),Muchammad Syamsulhadi1,3),

Sapja Anantanyu1), Ari Probandari1,3)

1)Doctoral Program in Health Promotion and

Community Development, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Department of Occupational Therapy,

School of Health Polytechnics, Surakarta

3)Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine,

Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: The prevalence of depression in the elderly has been increasing for the past few years. Depression in the elderly affects the quality of life. Some factors may cause depression in the elderly. This study aimed to examine the association between cognitive level, spiritual index, and depression level in the elderly.

Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in Karanganyar and Surakarta Districts, from February to December 2017. A sample of 160 elderly was selected by multi-stage random sampling. The dependent variable was depression. The independent variables were cognitive level and spiritual index. The data of depression were measured by Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The data of spiritual index were measured by Spiritual Index of Well-being. The cognitive data were measured by Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE). The data were analyzed by a multiple linear regression model.

Results: The risk of depression in the elderly decreased with higher spiritual index (b= -0.32; p= 0.001), but was not significantly affected by cognitive level (b= -0.04; p=0.606).

Conclusion: The risk of depression in the elderly decreases with higher spiritual index.

Keywords: depression, cognitive level, spiritual index, elderly

Correspondence: Ninik Nurhidayah. Doctoral Program in Health Promotion and Community Development, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, 57126, Surakarta, Central Java. Email: Mobile: 081567987031.



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