The Psychosocial Impact of Obesity or Overweight in Adolescents: A Path Analysis Evidence from Surakarta, Central Java

Yayang Kharistik A1), Yulia Lanti R.D2), C.S.P. Wekadigunawan1)

1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person’s weight by the square of the person’s height, is over 30 kg/m2, with the range 25–30 kg/m2 defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis and depression. Little is known about the psychosocial impact of obesity or overweight in adolescents in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the psychosocial impact of obesity or overweight in adolescents using path analysis.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at 6 junior high schools in Banjarsari and Jebres, Surakarta, Central Java, from October to November, 2017. A total sample of 160 junior high school students was selected for this study by purposive sampling. The dependent variables were depression, self-assessment, body image, eating disorder, and quality of life. The independent variables were obesity or overweight. Body mass index (BMI) was measured by body weight scale and microtoise. Data of other study variables were collected by questionnaire. The data were analyzed by path analysis.

Results: Obesity or overweight was associated with an increased risk of depression (b= 1.04; 95% CI=0.32 to 1.77; p= 0.005) and bad body image (b= -2.35; 95% CI= -3.20 to 1.49; p<0.001). Depression was associated with an increased risk of eating disorder (b= 0.55; CI 95%= -0.87 to 1.18; p=0.091) and poor quality of life (b= -0.64; 95% CI= -1.34 to 0.69; p= 0.077). Good body image was asssociated with positive self-assessment (b= 2.71; 95% CI= 1.89 to 3.52; p<0.001).

Conclusion: Obesity or overweight in adolescents is directly associated with depression and bad body image. Obesity or overweight is indirectly associated with negative self-assessment, eating disorder, and poorer quality of life.

Keywords: overweight, obesity, psychosocial, path analysis

Correspondence: Yayang Kharistik Almasith. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: Mobile: +6281229474445.


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