Matilda Bupu Ria1), Uki Retno Budihastuti2), Aris Sudiyanto3)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, UniversitasSebelasMaret

2)Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta

3)Faculty of Medicine,UniversitasSebelasMaret




Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the emotional disturbances that result from failure to postpartum psychological adaptation process. Untreated postpartum depression can have long-term adverse effects, both on mother and her children. In Indonesia, there is lack of research to explore the risk factors associated with PPD. This study aimed to determine the risk factors of postpartum depression.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Dr. Moewardi hospital, from December 2017 to January 2018. A total sample of 150 postpartum mothers was selected for this study by exhaustive sampling. The dependent variable was PPD. The independent variables were maternal age, stress, parity, unwanted pregnancy, type of labor, family income, family support, and domestic violence. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis model.

Results: The risk of PPD increased with psychological stress (b= 2.15; 95%CI= 1.17 to 3.13; p<0.001), delivery type (b= 1.27; 95%CI= 0.32 to 2.21; p= 0.008), and unwanted pregnancy (b= 1.57; 95%CI= 0.57 to 2.58; p= 0.002). The risk of PPD decreased with family income (b= -1.52; 95%CI= -2.51 to -0.54; p= 0.002), parity (b= -1.24; 95%CI= -2.21 to -0.28; p= 0.011), and family support (b= -1.31; 95%CI= -3.28 to -0.24; p= 0.016). The risk of PPD was indirectly affected by maternal age and domestic violence.

Conclusion: Psychological stress, maternal age, unwanted pregnancy, family income, parity, family support, and delivery type, are biopsychosocial risk factors for PPD.

Keywords: postpartum, depression, unwanted pregnancy, domestic violence, family support

Correspondence: Matilda Bupu Ria. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret,  Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, 57126, Surakarta, Central Java. E-mail: Mobile +6281241254153.


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