Association between Refractive Error and Decreasing Visus in Pregnant Women

Trilaksana Nugroho1), Hari Peni Julianti2), Dea Amarilisa Adespin2), Bambang Hariyana2), Ari Budi Himawan2)


1)Department of Ophthalmology Health, Faculty of Medicine,

Universitas Diponegoro

2)Department of Public Health- Preventive Medicine,

Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro



Background: Refractive error is a problem with focusing light accurately onto the retina due to the shape of the eye.  The most common types of refractive error are near-sightedness, far-sightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Visual impair­ment from uncorrected refractive errors can have immediate and long-term consequences in children and adults, such as lost educational and employ­ment opportunities, lost economic gain for individuals, families and societies, and impaired quality of life. This study aimed to estimate the association between refractive error and decreasing visus in pregnant women.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Puskesmas (community health center) Gunung Pati, Semarang, Central Java. A sample of 76 pregnant women was selected for this study by simple random sampling. The dependent variable was visus (visual acuity). The independent variable was ref­rac­­tive error. The diagnosis of a refractive error is usually confirmed by an eye care professional during an eye examination using a large number of lenses of different optical powers, and often a retinoscope. Visus was measured by Snellen optotype. The data were analyzed by chi square with prevalence ratio (PR) as the measure of association.

Results: Refractive error was associated with decreasing visus in pregnant women (PR= 15.00; CI 95%= 4.33 to 52.02; p< 0.001).

Conclusion: Refractive error is associated with decreasing visus in pregnant women.

Keywords: refractive error, visus, pregnant women

Correspondence: Trilaksana Nugroho. Department of Ophthalmology Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Central Java. Email: Mobile: 0811296047





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