Associations of Duration of Exposure and Years of Service with Trans Muconic Acid Level among Printing Industry Workers in Medan, North Sumatera

Annisa Febriana Siregar, Taufik Ashar, Nurmaini


Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health,

Universitas Sumatera Utara



Background: Trans, trans-Muconic acid is a metabolite of benzene in humans. The determination of its concentration in urine is used as a biomarker of occu­pa­tio­nal or environmental exposure to benzene. Benzene, also known as benzol, is a color­­less liquid with a sweet odor. Benzene evaporates into air very quickly and dis­solves slightly in water. Benzene is used in various industries incuding printing in­dustry to make other chemicals.  Benzene in the eyes may cause general ir­ri­tation and damage to cornea. People who breathe benzene for long periods may experience harmful effects in the tissues that form blood cells, especially the bone mar­row. This study aimed to analyze the associations of duration of ex­po­sure and years of service with trans-trans muconic acid level among printing in­dus­try workers in Medan, North Sumatera.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross sectional study carried out at printing in­dustry in Medan, North Sumatera. A sample of 16 printing workers were selec­ted for this study. The dependent variable was trans-trans muconic acid level. The inde­pendent variables were age, sex, duration of exposure, and years of ser­vice. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multiple line­ar regression.

Results: The associations of age and sex with trans-trans muconic acid was stastically non-significant. The associations of duration of exposure and years of ser­vice with trans-trans muconic acid were stastically significant. The longer duration of exposure and the longer years of service, the higher trans-trans muconic acid level indicating the higher benzene level.

Conclusion: Trans-trans muconic acid level is associated with duration of exposure and years of service.

Keywords: age, sex, duration of exposure, years of service, trans-trans muconic acid

Correspondence: Annisa Febriana Siregar. Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, North Sumatera. Email: Mobile: +6282277975080.



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