Does Maternal Schooling Affect the Risk of Child Obesity? A Path Analysis Evidence from Surakarta, Central Java

Arum Kusuma Rini1), Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari2), Bhisma Murti1)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Earlier life-course studies have shown that childhood obesity increa­ses disease risk in adulthood, including metabolic syndrome, cardio­vas­cu­lar dise­ase, type 2 diabetes and its associated cardiovascular, retinal and renal comp­li­ca­tions, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, poly­cys­tic ovarian syndrome, infertility, asthma, orthopedic complications, psychiatric disease, and increased rates of cancer. This study aimed to examine the risk fac­tors of child overweight or obesity in Surakarta, Central Java, using path analysis.

Subjects and Method: This was a case control study carried out in Surakarta, Cen­tral Java, from March to April 2018. A sample of 225 primary school students was selected by simple random sampling. The dependent variable was overweight or obesity. The independent variables were maternal education, family income, physi­cal activity, and maternal body mass index (BMI). The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis.

Results: The risk of child overweight or obesity increased with high family income (b= 1.51; 95% CI= 0.80 to 2.22; p<0.001) and maternal BMI ≥25 (b= 1.19; 95% CI= 0.42 to 1.96; p= 0.002). The risk of overweight or obesity reduced with high physical activity (b= -1.90; 95% CI= -2.63 to -1.16; p<0.001). Maternal edu­ca­tion had indirect association with child overweight or obesity, through mater­nal BMI and child physical activity.

Conclusion: The risk of child overweight or obesity increases with high family income and maternal BMI ≥25. The risk of overweight or obesity reduces with high physical activity. Maternal education has indirect association with child over­­weight or obesity, through maternal BMI and child physical activity.

Keywords: overweight, obesity, determinants, children, path analysis

Correspondence: Arum Kusuma Rini. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: Mobile: 082133044191.


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