The Effects of Hypertension, Smoking, and Obesity on Stroke Incidence in Riau

Armaliza Permata Sari, Rahayu Lubis, Zulfendri


Masters Program in Public Health, Faculty of Public Health,

Universitas Sumatera Utara



Background: Global health has entered a stage where the recognition that tackling non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including stroke is not only a clinical and public health issue but also an important challenge for global economic develop­­ment. A stroke happens when blood stops flowing to any part of the brain. Strokes can be large or small, and the effects of stroke depend on the part of the brain affected and the extent of damage. The effects of stroke can include communi­­cation problems, tiredness and fatigue, emotional changes and pain. This study ai­med to assess the effects of hypertension, smoking, and obesity, on stroke in­ci­den­ce in Riau.

Subjects and Method: This was a case-control study conducted at Rokan Hulu Ge­neral Hospital, Riau, in June 2018. A sample of 100 patients was selected for this study, consisting 50 patients with stroke and 50 patients without stroke. The depen­dent sample was stroke incidence. The independent variables were hyper­tension, smoking, and obesity. Hypertension was measured by sphyg­mo­manometer. The smoking data was measured by questionnaire. The obesity data were mea­su­red by Body Mass Index (BMI). The data were analyzed by a multiple logistic reg­ression.

Results: Of 100 patients sampled, 72% had hypertension, 74% were smokers, and 68% had obesity. Stroke incidence increased with hypertension (OR= 5.44; 95% CI= 2.21 to 13.40; p<0.001). It also increased with smokers (OR= 1.83; 95% CI= 0.78 to 4.63; p= 0.207) and obesity (OR= 1.71; 95% CI= 0.69 to 4.24; p= 0.246) although it was statistically non-significant.

Conclusion: The risk of stroke incidence increases with hypertension. The increased risk of stroke with smoking and obesity is statistically non-significant in this study.

Keywords: stroke, hypertension, smoking, obesity

Correspondence: Armaliza Permata Sari. Masters Program in Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Jl. Prof. T. Maas, Medan, North Sumatera. Email: Mobile: 085233087222.


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