Do Smoking, Heavy Physical Activity, and Overweight, Increase The Risk of Male Infertility? A New Evidence from Surakarta, Central Java

Devita Agustina1), Uki Retno Budihastuti2), Bhisma Murti1)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Sebelas Maret

2)Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr. Moewardi Hospital,




Background: Male infertility is a global public health issue. Infertility affects an esti­­mated 15% of couples globally, amounting to 48.5 million couples. Males are found to be solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases and contribute to 50% of cases overall. This study aimed to investigate the effects of smoking, heavy phy­sical activity, and overweight on the risk of male infertility.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Sekar infer­­tility clinic, Dr. Moewardi hospital, Surakarta, from January to May 2018. A sample of 120 men was selected by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was male infertility. The independent variables were age, smoking, physical acti­vity, and body mass index (BMI). The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.

Results: Male infertility was associated with older age (b= 4.96; 95% CI= 1.74 to 14.17; p= 0.003), smoking (b= 2.83; 95% CI= 1.17 to 6.84; p= 0.021), heavy physical activity (b= 2.84; 95% CI= 1.14 to 7.06; p= 0.025), and BMI ≥25 (b= 2.88; 95% CI= 1.06 to 7.85; p= 0.038).

Conclusion: Male infertility is associated with age, smoking, heavy physical activity, and BMI ≥25.

Keywords: infertility, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, men

Correspondence: Devita Agustina. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta, Indonesia. Email:





Share this :

View PDF