Effect of Spirulina Maxima on Tnf-Α Response and Goblet Cell Counts

Ulfah Dian Indrayani, Kamilia Dwi Utami


Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine,

Universitas Islam Sultan Agung



Background: Cigarette smoke contains toxic and free radical that may cause oxidative damage, inflammation, and an increased risk of degenerative diseases. For prevention, external antioxidants are required. Spirulina maximacontain flavo­noid phycosianin and beta carotene. However, few studies have been conducted on the its anti-inflammatory effect. This study aimed to test the effect of spirulina maxima on TNF-α response and Goblet cell counts.

Subjects and Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. A sample of 24 Wis­ter rats was selected for this study, and was randomly assigned to 4 groups: (1) A (2 mL water), (2) B (combination of vitamin C 0.2 mg/g BW and vitamin E 0,04IU/ gBW), (3) C (Spirulina maxima 250mg/ kg), and (4) D (Spirulina maxima 500mg/kg). The rats were exposed to cigarette smoke 3 times a day for 20 days. On day 21, TNF-α level and number of Goblet cells were evaluated. Differen­ces in means were tested by One Way Anova followed by LSD test, or Kruskal-Wallis followed by Mann-Whitney.

Results: Mean+SD of TNF- α of group A, B, C, D, were  774.90+2.32, 34.08+ 12.29, 232.83+26.39, 353.25+17.80, respectively, and it was statistically sig­ni­fi­cant. Number of Goblet cells of group A, B, C, D was 2.4+1.4, 8.3+1.5, 8.9+2.3, 10.4+4.0, respectively, and it was statistically significant.

Conclusion: Spirulina 500 mg decreases TNF α levels  and increases  number of Goblet cells.

Keywords: Spirulina maxima, TNF-α,  Goblet cells

Correspondence: Ulfah Dian Indrayani. Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Jl. Raya Kaligawe KM. 4, Semarang,  Central Java.

Email: ulfahdian@gmail.com. Mobile: 082227786234

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/theicph.2018.05.29

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