Factors Affecting Self-Care Ability among Children with Mental Retardation



Nursing Program, School of Health Sciences Muhammadiyah Kudus



Background: Mental retardation is a developmental problem manifested during a child’s years of development (i.e. 0-18 years old). It is a condition whereby a child’s intelligence and adaptability are significantly below the average level of his peers.Self-care such as skills to dress and undress, look after oneself, use a toilet, take food independently, bathe, wash, is an important step on the way to their socia­lization. This study aimed to assess the effects of child and parental factors on self-care ability among children with mental retardation.

Subjects and Method: This was cross sectional study conducted at SDLB (special education for children with special needs), Kudus, Central Java. A sample of 132 children with mental retardation was selected for this study. The depen­dent variable was self-care ability. The independent variables were child age, mater­nal education, and parental support. The data were collected by questio­n­naire and analyzed by chi square with odd ratio (OR) as the measure of effect.

Results: Self-care ability of children with mental retardation increased with child age (OR= 2.21; p= 0.037), higher maternal education (OR= 3.50; p= 0.028), and strong parental support (OR= 4.27; p= 0.001).

Conclusion: Self-care ability of children with mental retardation is positively asso­ciated with child age, maternal education, and parental support.

Keywords: mental retardation, self-care ability, child, parental factor.

Correspondence: Indanah. Nursing Program, School of Health Sciences Muhammadiyah, Kudus, Central Java. Email: Indanah@stikesmuhkudus.ac.id. Mobile: 08157612666.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/theicph.2018.03.19

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