A Systematic Review of Cyberbullying in Children and KiVa Program for Trauma Healing


Aris Widiyanto

 

School of Health Sciences Mamba’ul ‘Ulum, Surakarta

 

ABSTRACT

Background: Bullying involves behaviors such as verbal abu­se, ridicule, insults and thre­ats, as well as physical aggression, such as hitting, kicking, punching, and dama­ging other people’s things. Cyberbullying involves the use of electronic media with the aim of causing damage, hu­mi­­liation, suffering, fear and des­pair for individuals who are tar­gets of aggression. Criteria for “cyber­bullying”: attacks are intentional, occur repeat­edly, and cause psychological distress. The impact of cyberbullying is not only on daily lives but may continue to adulthood. KiVa is a research-based anti­­-bullying pro­gram that has been developed in the University of Turku, Fin­land, with funding from the Ministry of Education and Culture. The effectiveness of KiVa has been shown in a large rando­mized controlled trial. This study aimed to describe the emer­­ging health pro­blems and evidence-based intervention programs that support trau­ma healing through KiVa program.

Subjects and Method: A systematic review was conducted by searching the following databases: PubMed, SAGE Journals, and Virtual Health Library, from 2010 to 2018. The key­words for this review included cyberbullying AND children, cyberbullying AND mental health AND Children, cyberbullying in children AND intervention. The inclu­sion criteria were sys­tematic review, clinical review, cohort study, cross-sectional study, cli­nical study and guideline. After review process 19 articles and 1 RCT were included.

Results: Internationally, the impact of cyberbullying on children has been linked to poor mental health including overall psychological health, low self-esteem, depression, an­xiety, and violent behavior. Another study showed that bully victims had the highest risk of self-injury (PR= 4.7; 95% CI= 3.26 to 6.83), suicidal ideation (PR= 4.3; 95% CI= 2.83 to 6.49), suicide plan (PR= 4.1; 95% CI= 2.54 to 6.58) and effort (PR= 2.7; 95% CI= 1.39 to 5.13). KiVa is a school-based anti-bullying program from Finland involving teachers, students and pa­rents. The KiVa principle is the prevention of bullying by cul­tivating character in stu­dents by forming group norms. The forms vary, can be videos, online games, surveys, pos­ters, and guidebooks for pa­rents. Children are taught a sense of respon­sibility and empathy. Previous RCT studies con­sis­ting of 2,042 stu­dents in gra­des 4 and 6 showed that KiVa reduced intimidation, pro-in­ti­mi­da­tion and victimi­zation. And increasing at­ti­tudes and empathy for victims. Overall, the fin­dings pro­vide evi­dence of the effective­ness of the KiVa Program.

Conclusion: Cyberbullying is associated with emotional stress and even suicide attem­pts. Parents, health workers, and educators must be aware of the long-term risks so that prevention and treatment programs such as KiVa should be considered for ap­plication in Indonesia.

Keywords: cyber bullying, children, mental health

Correspondence: Aris Widiyanto. School of Health Science Mamba’ul ‘Ulum, Surakarta, Jl. Ring Road Utara, Tawangsari, Mojosongo, Jebres, Surakarta, Central Java. Email: widiyanto­aris99@gmail.com: 081329209095.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/theicph.2019.02.03

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