Biopsychosocial Determinants Of Hypertension

Febry Istyanto1), Ambar Mudigdo2), Setyo Sri Rahardjo2)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Hypertension is one of the most common and dangerous non-communicable di­sea­ses in the world. Hypertension prevalence in Indonesia reached 34.1% and becomes the main trigger of premature death and disability. This study aimed to determine the biopsychosocial factors associated with hypertension.

Subjects and Method: This was a case control study conducted in Dr. Moewardi Hos­pital, Su­rakarta, from September to November 2018. A sample of 225 patients was se­lected by fixed di­sease sampling, consisting of 75 hypertension patients and 150 non-hypertension patients. The dependent variable was hypertension. The independent va­ria­bles were anxiety, stress, sleep qu­a­lity, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, ve­ge­table and fruit consumption, coffee, and soft drink consumption. Blood pressure was measured by sphygmomanometer. BMI was measured by scale and microtoise. The other data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a mul­tiple linear regression.

Results: Hypertension increased with anxiety (b= 0.26; 95% CI= 0.01 to 0.51; p= 0.043), stress (b= 0.29; 95% CI= 0.04 to 0.54; p= 0.025), poor quality of sleep (b= 0.46; 95% CI= 0.05 to 0.88; p=0.030), BMI (b= 0.68; 95% CI= 0.04 to 1.33; p= 0.039), coffee consumption (b= 1.31; 95% CI= 0.15 to 2.49; p= 0.028), and soft drink con­sum­p­tion (b= 0.38; 95% CI= 0.03 to 0.73; p= 0.034). Hypertension decreased with high phy­sical activity (b= -0.04; 95% CI= -0.07 to -0.003; p= 0.032) and vegetable and fruit con­sumption (b=-1.14; 95% CI= -2.09 to -0.17; p= 0.021).

Conclusion: Hypertension increases with anxiety, stress, poor quality of sleep, BMI, coffee con­sumption, and soft drink consumption. Hypertension decreases with high phy­sical activity and vegetable and fruit consumption.

Keywords: biopsychosocial, determinants, hypertension

Correspondence: Febry Istyanto. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: febryistyan­ Mobile: 082133452012


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