Factors Associated with Open Defecation in Flood-Prone Areas in Indonesia

Sri Irianti1), Rr. Rachmalina Soerachman1)Zahra Zahra1), Puguh Prasetyoputra2)


1)National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta

2)Research Center for Population, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta



Background: Open defecation (OD) is the human practice of defecating outside (in the open en­vironment) rather than into a toilet. This practice is still happening in some countries, es­pe­cially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Natural disaster can happened to worsen the OD practice. There is still no study that eligible to the association of natural disaster and OD prac­tice. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with open defecation in flood-prone areas in Indonesia.

Subjects and Methods: This was an observational study. The data were obtained from Ba­sic Health Research (Riskesdas) and National Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas), in 2013. OD prac­tice and socio-demographic characteristics of the households were obtain­ed from Riskesdas in 2013. Flood experience of the households was obtained from Suse­nas in 2013. The data were ana­lyzed by multivariate logistic regression and odds ratio (OR) as the measure of association.

Results: Out of 835,256 people, 18.93% reported defecation in an open environment. The OD pre­valence was higher in the rural areas (28.61%) than in the urban areas (7.48%). People lived in flood-prone area was more likely to practice OD (OR= 1.85; 95% CI= 1.81 to 1.89; p< 0.001) than those who lived in non-flood-prone area. Access to drinking water, sanitation facility, and household socioeconomic status were also found to be significantly associated with OD practice.

Conclusion: Open defecation (OD) practice in the rural area is higher than in the urban area. People lived in flood-prone area is more likely to practice OD. Access to drinking wa­ter, sani­ta­tion facility, and household socioeconomic status are associated with OD prac­tice.

Keywords: open defecation, flood-prone area, rural, urban, Indonesia

Correspondence: Sri Irianti. National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Indonesia, Jl. Percetakan Negara No. 29, Jakarta 10560, Indonesia. Email: iriantis@gmail.com. Mobile: 08129696133.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/theicph.2019.01.49

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