Multilevel Analysis on The Contextual Effect of Elderly Health Post on The Incident of Depression among The Elderly

Christiana Sri Wahyuningsih1), Achmad Arman Subijanto2)Bhisma Murti1)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Masters Program in Family Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Positive social interactions, such as social support, contribute to the im­pro­vement of a person’s psychological and physical well-being. Social relationships reduce stress and depression, which can enhance physical health. This study aimed to examine the contextual ef­fect of the elderly health post (“posyandu lansia”) on the inci­dent of depression among the el­derly.

Subjects and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted in Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, from October to December 2018. A sample of 200 elderly from 25 elderly health posts was selec­ted by simple random sampling. The dependent variable was dep­res­sion. The independent va­ri­ables of level 1 were income, family type, history of chro­nic disease, family function, social inte­rac­tion, social support, and loneliness. The level 2 variable was the elderly health post. Data on dep­ression was measured by Geri­atric Dep­ression Scale 15 (GDS-15). The other data were collected by questionnaire and ana­lyzed by a multilevel linear regression.

Results: The risk of depression among elderly increased with social isolation (b= 0.52; 95% CI= 0.01 to 0.49; p= 0.050) and loneliness (b= 0.30; 95% CI= 0.11 to 0.49; p= 0.002). It dec­rea­sed with high income (b= -0.53; 95% CI= -1.03 to -0.03; p= 0.038), fa­mily type (b= -0.48; 95% CI= -0.95 to -0.02; p= 0.039), no history of chronic disease (b= 0.49; 95% CI= 0.03 to 0.95; p= 0.036), family function (b= -0.29; 95% CI= -0.48 to -0.10; p= 0.002), high social interaction (b= -0.10; 95% CI= 0.19 to 0.01; p= 0.016), and strong social support (b= -0.07; 95% CI= 0.11 to 0.03; p<0.001). The elderly health post had negligible contextual effect on depression among el­derly (ICC= 6.78%).

Conclusion: The risk of depression among elderly increases with social isolation and lone­liness. It decreases with high income, family type, no history of chronic disease, family function, high social interaction, and strong social support. The elderly health post has negligible con­tex­tual effect on depression among elderly.

Keywords: depression, family function, social interaction, loneliness, the elderly health post

Correspondence: Christiana Sri Wahyuningsih. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: Mobile: +6281287783924


Share this :

View PDF