Path Analysis on The Determinants of Hypertension in Women in Sragen, Central Java

Sudaryanto1), Setyo Sri Rahardjo2), Dono Indarto3)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret

3)Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women but is often underestimated and undiagnosed. There is an ongoing mis­per­ception that women are at a lower risk of cardiovascular disease than men. The purpose of this study was to examine de­terminants of hypertension in women in Sragen, Central Java using path analysis model.

Subjects and Method: A case control study was carried out in Sragen, Central Java, from September 25 to November 25, 2018. A sample of 200 women was selected for this study by fi­xed disease sampling. The dependent variable was hypertension. The in­de­pen­dent variables were age, BMI, history of hypertension, stress, smoking, physical ac­tivity, consumption, and cho­lesterol level. Data on blood pressure was measured by sphyg­momanometer. The other data were collected by questionnaire. The data were ana­lyzed by path analysis.

Results: The risk of hypertension in women was directly and positively affected by smoking (b= 3.52; 95% CI= 1.00 to 6.05; p= 0.006), age <20 or ≥35 years (b=1.25; 95% CI= 0.30 to 2.20; p= 0.010), high stress (b= 1.79; 95% CI= 0.63 to 2.96; p= 0.003), high salt consumption (b= 2.49; 95% CI= 0.25 to 4.73; p= 0.029), high cholesterol level (b=1.78; 95% CI= 0.68 to 2.89; p=0.001), history of hypertension (b=1.41; 95% CI=0.33 to 2.50; p=0.010), and BMI ≥25 (b=1.14; 95% CI= 0.17 to 2.11; p= 0.020). The risk of hypertension was directly and negatively affec­ted by high physical activity (b= -2.00; 95% CI= -3.09 to – 0.92; p<0.001). It was indirectly affected by physical activity and stress.

Conclusion: The risk of hypertension in women is directly and positively affected by smoking, age, stress, salt consumption, high cholesterol level, history of hypertension, and BMI ≥25. The risk of hypertension in women decreases with high physical activity. It is indirectly affected by phy­sical activity and stress.

Keywords: hypertension, determinants, women, path analysis

Correspondence: Sudaryanto. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email:

Mobile: +6285727565551.


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