Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Elderly at Muhammadiyah General Hospital, North Sumatera


Yulia Afrina Nasution, Zulhaida Lubis, Rasmaliah

 

Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Sumatera Utara

 

ABSTRACT 

Background: Non-communicable diseases occur mostly in the elderly. The dege­nerative pro­cess reduces the body’s resistance so it is susceptible to infectious diseases. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and impaired car­bo­hydrates, lipids, and pro­teins metabolism caused by complete or partial insu­ffi­ciency of in­sulin secretion and/or insulin ac­­tion. Type 2 DM is the most common cases of DM. This study aimed to examine the risk fac­tors of type 2 DM among elderly at Muham­madiyah General Hospital, North Sumatera.

Subjects and Method: This was a case control study carried out at Muhammadiyah Hospital, North Sumatera, in 2018. A total of 148 elderly patients was selected for this study, consisting of 74 patients with type 2 DM and 74 patients without type 2 DM. The de­pendent variable was the in­cidence of type 2 DM. The independent variables were family DM history, smoking habit, phy­sical activity, carbohydrate diet, fiber diet, body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference, and hypertension. The data were coll­e­c­ted by questionnaire and analyzed using multiva­riate ana­lysis.

Results: The risk of type 2 DM increased with family history of DM (OR= 4.44; 95% CI= 1.92 to 10.27), lack 0f physical activity (OR= 2.31; 95% CI= 1.01 to 5.32), smoking habit (OR= 3.92; 95% CI= 1.70 to 9.04), abdominal circumference ≥102 cm for men or 88 cm for women (OR= 2.73; 95% CI= 1.20 to 6.19), and lack of fiber intake (OR= 4.77; 95% CI= 2.10 to 10.83). The asso­cia­tion between type 2 DM and BMI, blood pressure, and carbohydrate, was not statistically sig­ni­ficant

Conclusion: The risk of type 2 DM increased with family history of DM, lack 0f phy­sical ac­tivity, smoking habit, abdominal circumference ≥102 cm for men or 88 cm for women, and lack of fiber intake.

Keywords: diabetes melitus, risk factors, elderly

Correspondence: Yulia Afrina Nasution. Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, North Sumatera. Email: yuliadokter@gmail.com. Mobile: 081370888764.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/theicph.2019.01.16 

 

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