Social Determinants of Chronic Energy Deficiency in Pregnant Women in Central Lampung: A Qualitative Study


Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Lampung



Background: Women in the reproductive age are most vulnerable to malnutri­ti­on. Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) refers to an intake of energy less than the re­qu­i­r­­e­­ment, for a period of several months or years. CED during pregnancy will cause pro­blems, both in the mother and fetus. This study aimed to examine social determinants of chronic energy deficiency in preg­nant women in Central Lampung.

Subjects and Method: This study was an explorative qualitative with pheno­me­no­logy ap­proach, conducted in Gunung Sugih community health center, Central Lampung. A total of 20 preg­nant women aged 18-35 years old with mid-upper arm cir­cum­ference (MUAC) ≤23.5 cm were selected for this study. The dependent variable was CED. The independent va­ri­able were social determinants. The data were collected by questionnaire, in-depth inter­view, and fo­cus group discussion (FGD). Data tri­angu­lation was carried out to nutrition pro­gram hol­der and mid­wives. The data were ana­lyzed descriptively.

Results: There were 10 themes about social, economic, and cultural determinants of CED: 1) know­ledge about  CED, 2) healthy dietary pattern and nutrition intake, 3) die­tary pattern of fa­mily contributed to nutrition status, 4) relationship between anemia and CED, 5) diete­tic pat­tern believed and prac­ticed by pregnant women, 6) increased mater­nal body weight in preg­nancy, 7) occupation correlate of CED, 8) proportion of household income to fulfill ava­il­ability of food in family, 9) health effects of CED, and 10) access to health information.

Conclusion: There are 10 themes about social, economic, and cultural determinants of CED among pregnant women.

Keywords: chronic energy deficiency, pregnant women, social determinant


Dian Isti Angraini. Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Lampung, Jl. Prof. Soemantri Brojonegoro No.1 Bandar Lampung 35142, Lampung.

Email: riditie­ Mobile: 081279061921.


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