The Associations between Employment, Smoking, Physical Activity, Fast Food Consumption, and Hypertension In Indonesia

Purwika Widayati1), Vitri Widyaningsih2)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Physical activity and healthy eating have long been promoted as key strategies in pre­venting hypertension. Fast food contains high sodium content, which increases the risk of high blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to estimate the associations between em­ployment, smoking, physical activity, fast food consumption, and hypertension.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study in 13 Provinces in Indonesia. A sam­ple of 4,204 hypertension patients was selected for this study. The dependent variable was hy­pertension. The independent variables were employment, smoking, physical activity, and fast food consumption. The data were obtained from Indonesia Family Life Survey 5 (IFLS-5). The data were analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.

Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 12.3%. Percent case of hypertension among male and female were 35.8% and 64.2%, respectively. The risk of hypertension increased with being em­ployed (OR= 0.64; 95% CI= 0.55 to 0.74; p<0.001), smoking behavior (OR= 1.04; 95% CI= 0.78 to 1.38; p= 0.817), and low physical activity (OR= 1.14; 95% CI= 0.99 to 1.32; p= 0.075). It was decreased by low fast food consumption (OR= 0.84; 95% CI= 0.77 to 0.91; p<0.001).

Conclusion: The risk of hypertension increases with employment, smoking behavior, and low physical activity. It decreases with low fast food consumption.

Keywords: hypertension, smoking, employment, fast food consumption.

Correspondence: Purwika Widayati. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: Mobile: +6281231153131


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