Biopsychosocial Determinants of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Sleman, Yogyakarta

Esti Lestari1), Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari2), Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi3)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: To combat early malnutrition and decrease infant morbidity and mor­ta­lity, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until the sixth month of life and complementary breastfeeding until age two years or beyond. However, at least 85.0% of mothers worldwide do not follow these recom­men­da­tions, and only 35.0% of infants aged <4 months are exclusively breastfed. This study ai­med to examine the biopsychosocial de­ter­minants of exclusive breast­feeding in Sleman, Yogyakarta.

Subjects and Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out inSleman, Yogya­karta, from No­­vember to December 2018. A sample of 200 lactating mothers was selec­ted by simple ran­dom sampling. The dependent variable was exclusive breast­feeding. The independent variables were knowledge, education, age, parity, birth spacing, em­ploy­ment, and family support. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.

Results: Exclusive breastfeeding increased with good knowledge(b= 2.06; 95% CI= 2.26 to 27.28; p= 0.001), high education (b= 1.56; 95% CI= 1.28 to 17.67; p= 0.002), mater­nal age (b= 2.71; 95% CI= 3.99 to 56.99; p= 0.001), multiparity (b= 1.59; 95% CI= 1.43 to 16.75; p= 0.011), birth spacing ≥2 years (b= 2.24; 95% CI= 2.35 to 37.32; p= 0.002), unemployed mother (b= 3.89; 95% CI= 9.78 to 245.98; p= 0.001), and family sup­port (b= 2.42; 95% CI= 2.85 to 44.5; p= 0.001).

Conclusion: Exclusive breastfeeding increases with good knowledge, high education, ma­ternal age, multiparity, birth spacing ≥2 years, unemployed mother, and family sup­port.

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, multiparity, birth spacing, and family support

Correspondence: Esti Lestari. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: estylestar­ Mobile: 082363242993


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