Determinants of Complete Immunization in Children under Two Years of Age in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

Tita Mintarsih, Adang Bachtiar


Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia



Background: Immunization is a strong pillar of community health. Attainment of the desired im­munization coverage has been always dependent on a range of determinants. These determinants are nor­mally put into broad categories as immunization system based, clients based and service pro­vi­­ders based. The objective of this study is to explore determinants of immunization services up­take in developing countries. This study aimed to review systematically determinants of com­plete immunization in children under two years of age in developing countries.

Subjects and Method:  A systematic review was conducted by searching the fol­low­ing data­bases included Pubmed, JSTOR, and Scopus which published articles from 2009 to 2018. The key­­words for this review included determinant and children full immu­nization. The inclusion cri­teria were determinants of complete immunization co­ver­age in children, quantitative, case se­ries, cross sectional, case control, or cohort. After review process 19 articles were included in this review.

Results: Complete immunization coverage in children up to two years in developing countries range from 23.70% in Nigeria to 89.50% in Ghana. The most influential deter­minants are ma­ternal education level, antenatal care service (ANC), mother’s age, financial ability, availability of im­munization card, birth place, and residential area.

Conclusion: Majority of complete immunization coverage determinants are based on in­di­vidual factor.

Keywords: determinant, children, complete immunization

Correspondence: Tita Mintarsih. Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Indonesia.

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