Factors Associated with Late Detection of Breast Cancer in Surakarta, Central Java: Application of Health Belief Model

Wayan Wati1), Ambar Mudigdo2), Isna Qadrijati2)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Primary prevention of breast cancer is still not available, so efforts to promote early detection continue to be the major focus in fighting breast cancer. Since early detection is as­sociated with decreased mortality, it is important to minimize delays in detection and di­agnosis. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with late detection of breast cancer in Surakarta, Central Java, using Health Belief Model.

Subjects and Method: A cross sectional study was carried out at Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Sura­karta, from October to December 2018. A sample of 200 breast cancer patients was selected by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was late detec­tion of breast cancer. The inde­pen­dent variables were perceived susceptibility, threat, benefit, barrier, self-efficacy, family sup­port, breast cancer detection, and family income. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.

Results: Late detection of breast cancer decreased with perceived susceptibility (b= -1.49; 95% CI= -2.55 to -0.42; p= 0.006), perceived threat b= -1.87; 95% CI= -3.05 to -0.69; p= 0.002), per­ceived benefit (b= -3.27; 95% CI= -4.54 to -2.00; p<0.001), self-efficacy (b= -1.49; 95% CI= -2.52 to -0.46; p= 0.004), family support (b= -1.44; 95% CI= -2.49 to -0.39; p= 0.007), early breast cancer detection (b=-2.21; 95% CI= -3.33 to -1.09; p<0.001), and income (b= -1.75; 95% CI= -2.92 to -0.59; p= 0.003). It increased with perceived barrier (b= 1.64; 95% CI= 0.49 to 2.80; p= 0.005).

Conclusion: Late detection of breast cancer decreases with perceived susceptibility, perceived threat, perceived benefit, self-efficacy, family support, early breast cancer detection, and in­come. It increases with perceived barrier.

Keywords: late detection, breast cancer, Health Belief Model

Correspondence: Wayan Wati. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: wayanwati99@­gmail.­com. Mobile: +6285842842990.


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