Prevalence and Determinants of Stunting among Children under Two Years of Age in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara

Nabilah Nurul Ilma1), Harsono Salimo2), Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari2)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background:Globally in 2017, 155 million children under 5 were estimated to be stun­ted. Stunting is a well-established risk marker of poor child development. Iden­tif­ying determinants of stunting among children under five would help to set priorities for action and to the design of stunting reduction plan. This study aimed to determine pre­va­­lence and determinants of stunting among children under two years of age in Ku­pang, East Nusa Tenggara.

Subjects and Method: This was a case control study conducted at 25 integrated health posts in Alak and Oebobo Subdistricts, in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, from No­vem­ber to December 2018. A sample of 200 children under two years was selected by multi-stage random sampling. The dependent variable was stunting. The inde­pen­dent variables were diarrhea, birth length, pa­ren­tal income, maternal education, ex­clu­sive breastfeeding, maternal height, maternal mid-up­per arm circumference (MUAC), complementary feeding, maternal hygiene practice, and sani­tation. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.

Results: Stunting prevalence in Kupang was 30.5%.The risk of stunting decreased with appropriate complementary feeding(b= -1.97; 95% CI= -3.55 to -0.39; p= 0.014), good hygiene practice (b= -4.38; 95% CI= -6.63 to -2.12; p<0.001), good sanitation (b= -2.32; 95% CI= -4.00 to -0.64; p= 0.007), and birth length ≥48 cm (b= -2.22; 95% CI= -3.74 to -0.69; p= 0.004). The risk of stunting increased with recurrence diarrhea (b= 2.55; 95% CI= 1.01 to 4.09; p=0.001).

Conclusion: The risk of stunting decreases with appropriate complementary feeding, good hygiene practice, good sanitation, and birth length ≥48 cm. The risk of stunting increases with recurrence diarrhea.

Keywords: stunting,determinants 

Correspondence: Nabilah Nurul Ilma Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: nabilahnurul86­ Mobile: +6287838555468.


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