Risk Factors for Depression among Women in Surakarta, Central Java

Yesi Retiyansa1), Dono Indarto2),Bhisma Murti1)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Fertility reportedly affects about 13–15% of couples worldwide. It has immense psy­cho-social impact on couples. This study aimed to analyze the effects of infertility, age, education, family income, and co-morbidity on depression in women of reproductive age.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross sectional study conducted in Surakarta, Central Java, from September to October 2018. A sample of 200 women of repro­duc­tive age was selected by fixed exposure sampling. The dependent variable was dep­ression. The independent variables were infertility, education, family income, age, and co-morbidity. Data were collected by ques­tionnaire and analyzed by a multiple logistic reg­ression.

Results: Infertility (OR= 2.61; 95% CI=1.19 to 5.70; p=0.016),age (OR= 3.59; 95% CI=1.64 to 7.85; p=0.001), and co-morbidity (OR= 10.51; 95% CI=4.96 to 22.27; p <0.001) increased the risk of depression among women. High education (OR=0.41;95%CI=0.19 to 0.90; p=0.025) and high family income (OR= 0.33; 95% CI=0.15 to 0.71; p=0.005) decreased the risk of dep­res­sion among women.

Conclusion: Infertility,age, and co-morbidity increase the risk of depression among women, but high level of education and high family income decrease the risk of dep­ression among women.

Keywords: depression, infertility, education, co-morbidities, women, reproductive age

Correspondence: Yesi Retiyansa. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: yesi.retiyansa@gmail.com. Mobile: +6281252634625.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/theicph.2019.03.16

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