Exercise as An Alternative to Nitrite Oxide, and Body Weight and High Blood Preassure: A Systematic Review

Tuti1), Ari Suwondo1),Sulistiyani2


¹Masters of Applied Midwifery, School of Health Polytechnic of Ministry of Health, Semarang

2⁾Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang



Background: Hypertensive pregnancy disorders complicate 6–8% of pregnancies and cause significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in maternal cardiovascular system. Nitric oxide, a physiologic vas­­cular smooth muscle relaxant regulates blood flow and therefore may play a role in the cardio­vascular changes in pregnancy. While obesity is a leading risk factor for pre­ec­­lamp­sia, the mechanisms whereby obese women are more susceptible to pregnancy in­duced hyper­tension are unclear. This study aimed to review systematically exercise as an alternative to nitrite oxide, and body weight and high blood preassure.

Subjectsand Method:A systematic review was conducted by searching the following data­bases included Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Pubmed which published arti­cles from 2008 to 2018. The keywords for this review included exercise, nitrit oxide, ges­tasional weight again (GWG), blood pressure, hypertension in pregnancy. The in­clu­sion criteria were quantitative, sample information, methods and research instruments, and full text . After review process 15 articles were included in this review.

Results:Almost of all articles stated that exercise effectively increased nitrite oxide level, prevented excessive weight loss, and prevented hypertension in pregnancy (80%). Mo­de­rate intensity exercise was safe for pregnant women in the second and third tri­mes­ter of preg­­­nan­cy and has positive effect on newborn baby (86.7%). The types of exer­cise used include aerobic exercise, stationary bikes, walking, treadmills, and yoga ex­er­­cises. Exercise dura­tion between 20 minutes to 60 minutes, with an intensity of 2 to 5 times a week.

Conclusion: Moderate intensity exercise is safe and beneficial for the health of preg­nant women in preventing the occurrence of hypertension in pregnancy (preeclampsia) and metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: exercise, nitrite oxide, gestasional weight again (GWG), blood pressure, hy­pertension, pregnancy.

Correspondence: Tuti. Masters of Applied Midwifery, School of Health Polytechnic of Ministry of Health Semarang. Email: tutibidan123@yahoo.co.id. Mobile: 085390586128.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/theicph.2019.05.20

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