Zidovudine Consumption and Its Association with Anemia in People Living with Hiv/Aids in Semarang, Central Java

 Danis Pertiwi 1,2), Suradi 3), Tri Indah Winarni4), Ari Natalia Probandari5)


1)Doctoral Program of Medical Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine,

Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang

3)Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine,

Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta

4)Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang

5)Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta



Background: In 2017, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) cases in Central Java Pro­­­vince ranked 4th in Indonesia. Zidovudine (AZT) is the first-line drug recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1990 for the treatment of HIV infec­tions, especially for developing countries. AZT has the adverse effect of sup­pressing he­ma­to­poiesis, causing anemia/ decreased hemoglobin (Hb) level. This study aimed to de­ter­­mine the effect of AZT on the risk of anemia in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Semarang, Central Java.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study in Semarang, 2018. The stu­dy was carried out at 6 health service facilities, including Community Health, Dr. Ka­riadi General Hospital, Tugurejo General Hospital, Pantiwilasa Hospital, Sultan Agung Is­lam­ic Hospital, and Halmahera Community Health Center, for 6 months. A total of 213 adult PLWHA who received AZT therapy was selected for this study. The de­pen­dent variable was anemia. The independent variable was AZT consumption. HIV/AIDS and anemia data were obtained from medical record. The other data were collec­ted by ques­tionnaire. The duration of AZT was categorized as <1 year and ≥ 1 year. Hb level were categorized as anemia if Hb <12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men. The data were analyzed by correlation.

Results: Out of 213 PLWHA, 138 (64.8%) were men and 75 (35.2%) women. The ave­rage age was 36.9 years. A total of 190 (89.2%) PLWHA had received AZT therapy ≥1 year and 23 (10.8%) received AZT therapy <1 year. 51 (23.9%) PLWHA had anemia and 162 (76.1%) did not have anemia. Duration of AZT consumption was correlated with anemia (r= 0.16; p= 0.02).

Conclusion: Duration of AZT consumption is correlated with anemia.

Keywords: Zidovudine, duration, anemia, HIV, PLWHA 

Correspondence: Danis Pertiwi. Doctoral Program of Medical Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Sura­karta/ Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang, Central Java. Email: danispertiwiok@gmail.com. Mobile: 081229­1­0269.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/theicph.2019.05.12

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