Biological, Social Economic, and Environmental Determinants of Child Pneumonia after Earthquake: An Evidence from West Nusa Tenggara

Nur Isniani Ningsih1), Harsono Salimo2), Setyo Sri Rahardjo3)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta

3)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: People who experienced natural disasters were likely to lose their properties and forced to live in evacuation center or shelter. Dramatic life changes among evacuees caused by various infectious diseases due to many factors, such as stress, hygiene, and environmental issues. Groups lived in a confined place with insufficient ventilation easily lead to outbreaks of respiratory infection, influenza, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and others. This study aimed to analyze biological, social economic, and enviromental determinants of child pneumonia after earthquake.

Subjects and Method: This was a case control study. A sample of 237 children aged 12 to 59 months was selected by fixed disease sampling. The independent variable was pneumonia. The independent variable were maternal education, family income, birth weight, exclusive breastfeeding, nutritional status, immunization, healthy behavior, quality of house, fuel smoke exposure, cigarette smoke exposure, and village level. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.

Results:  Maternal education  (b= -1.46; 95% CI= -2.63 to -0.28; p= 0.014), family income (b= -1.86; 95% CI= -3.32 to -0.41; p= 0.012), birth weight (b= -1.45; 95% CI= -2.97 to -0.06; p= 0.062), exclusive breastfeeding (b= -1.12; 95% CI= -2.27 to 0.03; p= 0.057), nutritional status (b= -2.38; 95% CI= -3.58 to -1.19; p<0.001), immunization status (b=-0.97; 95% CI= -2.12 to 0.17; p= 0.097), healthy behavior (b= -1.16; 95% CI= -2.27 to -0.05; p= 0.040), quality of house (b= -1.16; 95% CI= -2.30 to -0.02; p= 0.044), and village development level (b= -1.83; 95% CI= -3.37 to -0.28; p= 0.020) decreased the risk of pneumonia. Fuel smoke exposure (b= 1.46; 95% CI= 0.23 to 2.68; p= 0.019) and smoking activity in family (b= 1.91; 95% CI= 0.42 to 3.41; p= 0.012) increased the risk of pneumonia.

Conclusion: Maternal education, family income, birthweight, exclusive breastfeeding, nutritional status, immunization status, healthy behavior, quality of house, and village development level, decrease the risk of pneumonia. Fuel smoke exposure and smoking activity in family increase the risk of pneumonia

Keywords: pneumonia, village level, smoking, birthweight

Correspondence: Nur Isniani Ningsih. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: Mobile: 081997998692.


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