Dental and Oral Care to Reduce the Incidence of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia among Patients with Ventilator in Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review

Fiki Kusumasari, Anhari Achadi


Masters Program in Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia



Background: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk for dying not only from their critical illness but also from secondary processes such as nosocomial infection. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)  is  the  second  most  common nosocomial infection in the ICU and the most common in mechanically ventilated patients. Oral and dental care may reduce microorganisms in the oral cavity. This study was aimed to review the effect of dental and oral care to reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia among patients with ventilator in the intensive care unit.

Subjects and Method: A systematic review was conducted by searching published articles  from  2014  to  2019,  from  PubMed. The inclusion  criteria  were  articles  in English, full text, randomized controlled trial, and open access. The dependent variable was the incidence of VAP. The independent variable was dental and oral care. After the review process, 8 articles were included in this review.

Results: Eight articles reported that dental and oral care is one of the key factors for VAP prevention. It is an effective procedure to decrease nosocomial infections, colonization of the bacteria, and a tendency to reduce the incidence of VAP.

Conclusion: Dental and oral care reduces the incidence VAP.

Keywords: ventilator associated pneumonia, oral care, intensive care unit

Correspondence: Fiki Kusumasari. Magisters of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, West Java. Email: Mobile: 081808999608.


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