Energy and Protein Consumption, Infectious Disease History, and Academic Achievement, in Stunted and Non-Stunted Primary School Students in Malang, East Java

I Nengah Tanu Komalyna, AAG Anom Aswin, Tasya Adinda Agustina


Department of Nutrition Program, School of Health Polytechnics, Ministry of Health, Malang



Background: Stunting is a condition of failure to thrive due to chronic malnutrition. Stunting is not only caused by nutritional factors, but also health factors. Stunted children may have sub-normal intelligence. This study aimed to determine differences in level of consumption (energy and protein), health status, and academic achievement in stunted and non-stunted primary school students in Malang, East Java.

Subjects and Method: This was a case-control study conducted in the State Primary Schools 1, 2, and, 4 in the villages of Wandanpuro, Bululawang District, Malang, East Java, from November to December 2018. A total of 70 primary school students were selected for this study. The dependent variable was stunting status. The independent variables were level of consumption (energy, protein), health status, and academic achievement. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.

Results: As many as 62.9% stunted students had the level of energy consumption <70% of energy adequacy rate. 85.6% had the level of protein consumption <80% of protein adequacy rate. 28.6% had a history of infectious disease. Students with energy consumption level <70% of recommended dietary allowance (RDA) (OR= 6.77; 95% CI= 2.31 to 19.84), protein consumption level <80% RDA (OR= 5.45; 95% CI= 1.96 to 15.18), history of infectious diseases (OR= 4.27; 95% CI= 1.06 to 17.17) were at risk of stunting. Stunted students had lower academic achievement than non-stunted students (OR= 1.99; 95% CI= 0.70 to 5.67).

Conclusion: Energy consumption level <70% RDA, protein consumption level <80% RDA, and history of infectious disease, increase the risk of stunting among primary school students.

Keywords: stunting status, energy consumption level, protein consumption level, history of infectious diseases

Correspondence: I Nengah Tanu Komalyna, AAG Anom Aswin. Department of Nutrition Program, School of Health Polytechnics, Ministry of Health, Malang. Jl. Besar Ijen No. 77 C, Malang, East Java. Email: Mobile:08123393778.


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