Factors Affecting Self-Care in Children with Mental Retardation in Surakarta, Central Java

Janur Putri Wayanshakty1), Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi2),  Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari2)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Children with mental retardation require special individual-oriented approach including the development of self-dependence skills by optimized of parentalchildren interaction. Parents and caregiver play a major role in helping children with mental retardation grow and develop to their full potential. This study aimed to examine factors affecting self-care in children with mental retardation in Surakarta, Central Java.

Subjects and Method: A cross sectional study carried out at 15 special need schools in Surakarta, Central Java, from June to July 2019. A sample of 200 children aged 9-17 years old with mental disability was selected by stratified random sampling. The dependent variable was self care. The independent variables were nutritional status, severity level, maternal education, maternal knowledge, maternal occupation, maternal parenting style, and teacher support. The data were analyzed by questionnaire and analyzed by a multiple logistic regression run on Stata 13.

Results: Self care improved with mild mental disorder (OR=7.37; 95% CI= 1.14 to 47.49; p= 0.036), maternal education ≥senior high school (OR= 4.87; 95% CI= 1.58 to 15.06; p= 0.006), and good maternal parenting style (OR= 5.28; 95% CI= 1.56 to 17.8; p= 0.007). Self care worsened with poor nutritional status (OR= 0.16; 95% CI= 0.05 to 0.56; p= 0.004), mother working outside the house (OR= 0.25; 95% CI= 0.08 to 0.82; p= 0.022), poor maternal knowledge (OR= 0.18; 95% CI= 0.05 to 0.62; p= 0.007), and weak teacher support (OR= 0.06; 95% CI= 0.10 to 0.32, p=0.001).

Conclusion: Self care improves with mild mental disorder, maternal education ≥senior high school, and good maternal parenting style. Self care worsens with poor nutritional status, mother working outside the house, poor maternal knowledge, and weak teacher support.

Keywords: disability, mental disorder, self care,children

Correspondence: Janur Putri Wayanshakty. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: janurputri@gmail.com. Mobile: 085258870014.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/the6thicph.03.66

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