Factors Associated with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Surakarta, Central Java


Akhmad Azmiardi1), Didik Tamtomo2), Bhisma Murti1)

 

1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Masters Program in Family Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret

 

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetic neuropathy includes acute and chronic forms affecting each level of the peripheral nerve, from the root to the distal axon. Peripheral neuropathy is a result of damage to the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord (peripheral nerves). It often causes weakness, numbness, and pain. This study aimed to determine factors associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy among patients with type 2 DM.

Subjects and Method: A cross sectional study was carried out at Surakarta hospital, Surakarta, Central Java, in July 2019. A sample of 200 type 2 DM outpatients was selected by simple random sampling. The dependent variable was peripheral neuropathy. The independent variables were age, education, income, self efficacy, medication adherence, physical activity, health literacy, length of illness, and fasting blood sugar. Peripheral neuropathy was measured by Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). The other variables were collected by questionnaire. The data were analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.

Results: The risk of peripheral neuropathy increased with age ≥55 years old (b= 3.61; 95% CI= 1.51 to 5.70; p=0.001), length of illness ≥5 years (b= 2.78; 95 % CI= 0.51 to 5.04; p= 0.016), and fasting blood sugar ≥110 mg/dL (b= 1.64; 95% CI= -0.01 to 3.03; p= 0.052). The risk decreased with education ≥senior high school (b= -2.41; 95% CI= – 4.31 to -0.51; p= 0.013), income ≥Rp 1,800,000 (b= -1.58; 95% CI= -3.12 to -0.04; p= 0.044), strong self-efficacy (b= -1.67; 95% CI= -3.26 to -0.07; p= 0.040), controlled diet (b= -1.89; 95% CI= -3.64 to -0.14; p= 0.034), medication adherence (b= -2.34; 95% CI= -4.13 to -0.56; p= 0.010), high physical activity (b= -2.33; 95% CI= -4.17 to – 0.49; p= 0.013), and good health literacy (b= -1.52; 95% CI= -3.18 to 0.14; p=0.073).

Conclusion:  The risk of  peripheral neuropathy increases with  age ≥55  years  old, length of illness ≥5 years, and fasting blood sugar ≥110 mg/dL. The risk decreases with education ≥senior high school, income ≥Rp 1,800,000, strong self-efficacy, controlled diet, medication adherence, high physical activity, and good health literacy.

Keywords: peripheral neuropathy, health literacy, type II diabetes

Correspondence: Akhmad Azmiardi. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: aazmiardi@gmail.com. Mobile: 085245412021.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/the6thicph.01.44

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