Factors Associated with Obesity among High School Students in Surakarta, Central Java

Rita Setiyaningsih1), Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi2), Rita Benya Adriani3)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret

3)Diploma Program in Speech Therapy, School of Health Politechnics Surakarta



Background: Sedentary behavior refers to any activity characterized by very low energy expenditure. A sedentary life-style is related to impaired fitness and to obesity. People who have obesity, compared to those with a normal or healthy weight, are at in-creased risk for many serious diseases and health conditions. This study aimed to determine factors associated with obesity among high school students in Surakarta, Central Java.

Subjects and Method: A case control study was conducted at 15 senior high schools in Surakarta, Central Java, in April 2019. A sample of 225 high school students was selected by stratified random sampling. The dependent variable was obesity. The independent variables were nutritional intake, physical activity, maternal body mass index (BMI), paternal BMI, parental income, and pocket money. Body weight was measured by weight scale. Body height was measured by microtoise. The other variables were collected by questionnaire. The data were analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.

Results: The risk of obesity in adolescents increased with nutritional intake ≥nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) (OR= 3.12; 95% CI= 1.29 to 7.50; p= 0.012), maternal BMI ≥25 kg/m² (OR= 6.19; 95% CI= 2.23 to 17.18; p<0.001), paternal BMI ≥25kg/m² (OR= 2.83; 95% CI= 1.23 to 6.48 p= 0.014), parental income ≥Rp 1,800,000 (OR= 4.52; 95% CI= 2.04 to 11.85; p<0.001), and pocket money ≥Rp 10,000 (OR= 3.35; 95% CI= 1.51 to 7.45; p= 0.003). The risk of obesity in adolescents decreased with vigorous physical activity (OR= 0.08; 95% CI= 0.03 to 0.23; p<0.001) and good parental knowledge (OR= 0.42; 95% CI= 0.18 to 0.96; p= 0.041).

Conclusion: The risk of obesity in adolescents increases with adequate nutritional intake, maternal BMI ≥25 kg/m², paternal BMI ≥25 kg/m², parental income ≥Rp 1,800,000, and pocket money ≥Rp 10,000. The risk of obesity in adolescents decreases with vigorous physical activity and good parental knowledge.

Keywords: obesity, adolescents

Correspondence: Rita Setiyaningsih. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: ritasetiya2608@gmail.com. Mobile: +6282220489153.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/the6thicph.01.48

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