Factors Associated with Occurrence Chronic Energy Deficiency among Pregnant Woman

Nur Cahya Rachmawati1), Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi2), Vitri Widyaningsih2)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Chronic energy deficiency (CED) is an indirect cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. Poor nutritional status among pregnant women impacts on poor birth outcome. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with occurrence chronic energy deficiency among pregnant woman in Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta.

Subjects and Method: A case control study was carried out at 25 community health centers in Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta, from April to May 2019. A sample of 200 pregnant women was selected by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was chronic energy disease. The independent variables were nutritional intake, education, employment, knowledge, income, age, parity, antenatal care (ANC), and food availability. Data on chronic energy disease was measured by mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) tape. The other variables were collected by questionnaire. The data were analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.

Results: Chronic energy deficiency decreased with high protein intake (b= -2.42; 95% CI= -4.73 to -0.12; p= 0.039), education ≥Senior high school (b= -3.43; 95% CI= -5.51 to -1.35; p<0.001), employed mother (b= -3.32; 95% CI= -6.18 to -0.46; p= 0.023), knowledge (b= -3.39; 95% CI= -5.98 to -0.79; p= 0.011), high income (b= -2.38; 95% CI= -5.27 to -1.60; p= 0.017), age ≥20 to 35 years (b= -3.17; 95% CI= -8.16 to -2.26; p= 0.030), parity >2 (b= -2.97; 95% CI= -6.42 to -0.13; p= 0.018), ANC (b= -1.72; 95% CI= -5.20 to -0.49; p= 0.007), and food availability (b= -2.74; 95% CI= -8.63 to -1.98; p= 0.021).

Conclusion: Chronic energy deficiency decreases with high protein intake, education ≥Senior high school, employed mother, knowledge, high income, age ≥20 to 35 years, parity >2, ANC, and food availability.

Keywords: chronic energy deficiency, protein intake, pregnant women

Correspondence: Nur Cahya Rachmawati. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: nurcahyarachmawatii@gmail.com. Mobile: +6287838992205.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/the6thicph.03.24

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