The Associations between Residence, Employment, Smoking, Fish Consumption, and The Risk of Asthma in Indonesia

Dewi Shinta1), Vitri Widyaningsih2)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Asthma is an important public health problem worldwide. The World Health Organization global burden of disease study estimates that 13.8 million disability adjusted years (DALYs) are lost annually due to asthma, representing 1.8% of the global disease burden. Factors that influence the risk of developing asthma include host and environmental factors. However, the mechanism by which these factors influence the development and expression of asthma are complex and interactive. This study aimed to examine the associations between fish consumption, smoking, employment, residence, and asthma in Indonesia.

Subjects and Method: This study was conducted using secondary data. The data were obtained from Indonesian family life survey (IFLS) 5 year 2014. A sample data of 56,806 study subjects was analyzed for this study. The dependent variable was asthma. The independent variables were fish consumption, smoking, employment, and residence. The data were analyzed by a multiple logistic regression run on Stata 13.

Results: Asthma prevalence in Indonesia was 2.82%. Asthma prevalence was slightly higher in female (52.44%) and people aged <35 years (51.19%). The risk of asthma decreased with being employed (OR= 0.75; 95% CI= 0.66 to 0.84; p<0.001) and non- smoking (OR= 0.69; 95% CI= 0.60 to 0.80; p<0.001). The risk of asthma increased with fish consumption (OR= 1.19; 95% CI= 1.07 to 1.34; p= 0.002) and urban residence (OR= 1.22; 95% CI= 1.08 to 1.37; p= 0.001).

Conclusion:  Asthma prevalence is slightly higher in female and people aged <35 years. The risk of asthma decreases with being employed and non-smoking, and yet increases with fish consumption and urban residence.

Keywords: asthma, smoking, fish consumption

Correspondence: Dewi  Shinta. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas  Maret. Jl.Ir.Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: Mobile: +6282364950175.


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