The Associations between Smoking, Fruit-Vegetable Intake, and Blood Pressure among Male Adolescents

Mohammad Zainul Ma’arif, Suradi, Sugiarto


Masters Program in Nutrition, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Hypertension begins in childhood and adolescence, and it contributes to early development of cardiovascular disease. However, hypertension in adolescents is usually asymptomatic and can easily be missed by healthcare professionals. Prior epidemiological studies have shown that smokers consume more fats, alcohol, and caffeine and less fruit, vegetable, and fiber than non-smokers. These unhealthy habits are evident even among adolescent smokers. This study aimed to analyze the associations of smoking and fruit-vegetable intake with blood pressure among male adolescent.

Subjects and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at two high schools, in Jember,  East  Java. A total of 118 male  adolescent  was  selected by cluster random sampling. The dependent variable was blood pressure. The independent variables were smoking and fruit and vegetable intake. Smoking was determined by the global youth tobacco  survey  (GYTS)  questionnaire. Fruit  and  vegetable  intake  was measured  by semi-quantitative  food  frequency  questionnaire (SQ-FFQ). Blood pressure  was  mea- sured  by  the  oscillometric  method.  The  data  were  analyzed by  a  multiple  logistic  regression.

Results: 58.6%  adolescents  were  active  smoker  and  61%  had  poor  fruit-vegetable intake  (<nutrition  balance  guideline).  The  risk  of  high  blood  pressure  increased  with smoking (OR= 1.94; 95% CI= 0.88 to 4.26; p= 0.100), but it was statistically non-significant. The risk of high blood pressure decreased with adequate fruit-vegetable intake (OR= 0.47; 95% CI= 0.21 to 1.06; p= 0.070).

Conclusion: Male adolescents with inadequate fruit-vegetable intake per day are more likely to experience high blood pressure than those with adequate fruit-vegetable intake.

Keywords: blood pressure, fruit and vegetable intake, smoking, male adolescents

Correspondence: Mohammad Zainul Ma‘arif. Masters Program in Nutrition, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl.  Ir.  Sutami  36A,  Surakarta  57126,  Central  Java.  Email: Mobile: +6281232729840.


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