The Prevalence and the Associations between Smoking, Cholesterol Level, and Hypertension: The Indonesia Family Life Survey Year 2014

Maki Zamzam1), Vitri Widyaningsih2)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Blood pressure, cholesterol, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking and diabetes are controllable risk factors of heart diseases. Cholesterol level may increase the risk of other conditions, such as hypertension, depending on which blood vessels are narrowed or blocked. This study aimed to examine the associations between smoking, cholesterol level, and hypertension using the Indonesia family life survey-5 (IFLS) year 2014.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross sectional study. The data were obtained from the IFLS-5 years 2014. A sample data of 31,692 people was analyzed in this study. The dependent variable was hypertension. The independent variables were age, sex, cholesterol level, education, and smoking. The data were analyzed by a multiple logistic regression run on Stata 13.

Results:  The prevalence of smoking was 36.74%, high cholesterol was 4.07%, and hypertension was 12.28%. The risk of hypertension increased with age ≥50 years old (OR= 3.47; 95% CI= 3.20 to 3.75; p <0.001) and high cholesterol level (OR= 4.49; 95% CI= 3.91 to 5.14; p<0.001). The risk of hypertension decreased with male (OR= 0.58;95% CI= 0.51 to 0.65; p<0.001), high education level (OR= 0.88; 95% CI= 0.78 to 0.99; p= 0.036), and smoking (OR= 0.88; 95%= 0.78 to 0.99; p= 0.041).

Conclusion:  The risk of hypertension increases  with  age ≥50 years old and high cholesterol level. The risk of hypertension decreased with male, high education level, and smoking.

Keywords: hypertension, cholesterol, smoking

Correspondence: Maki Zamzam, Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: Mobile: 081251543935.


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