Application of Precede Proceed Model on Factors Affecting Depression Symptom in the Elderly: Evidence from Surakarta, Central Java

Zela Tunurrohmin1), RB. Soemanto2), Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari3)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret

3)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Geriatric depression is a mental and emotional disorder affecting older adults. Social support is an important factor known to moderate the deleterious effects of stress in elderly. This study aimed to determine factors affecting depression symptom in the elderly using PRECEDE PROCEED model.

Subjects and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted in Surakarta, Central Java. A sample of 200 elderly was selected for this study by cluster random sampling. The dependent variable was depression. The independent variables were gender, marital status, residence, education, family support, and peer support. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multiple linear regression run on Stata 13.

Results: The risk of depression in elderly increased with female (b= 5.53; 95% CI= 3.38 to 7.70; p<0.001), unmarried (b= 4.15; 95% CI=1.36 to 6.95; p= 0.004), and living at nursing home (b= 8.16; 95% CI= 5.26 to 11.06; p<0.001). The risk of depression decreased with high education (b= -5.51; 95% CI= -7.49 to -3.51; p<0.001), strong peer support (b= -2.75; 95% CI= -4.92 to -0.58; p= 0.013), and strong family support (b= -5.02; 95% CI= -7.96 to -2.09; p<0.001).

Conclusion: The risk of depression in elderly increases with female, unmarried, and living at nursing home. The risk of depression decreases with high education, strong peer support, and strong family support.

Keywords: depression, elderly

Correspondence: Zela Tunurrohmin. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: Mobile: 082225442002.


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