Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Acute Respiratory Infection in Children Under Five: A Meta-Analysis

Maya Ayu Riestiyowati1), Setyo Sri Rahardjo2), Vitri Widyaningsih2)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Acute Respiratory Infections are classified into the upper and lower respiratory tract infections, contributing to the leading cause of death among children under five globally. The estimation showed the deaths of more than 800,000 children under five every year or about 2,200 per day. One of the risk factors for ARI in children under five years of age is secondary exposure to tobacco smoke. This study aimed to examine the effect of cigarette smoke exposure and acute respiratory infection in children under five.

Subjects and Method: This was meta analysis and systematic review. The study was conducted by collecting published articles from Google Scholar, Pubmed, and Springer Link databases, from year 2010 to 2019. Keywords used “risk factor” OR “passive smoking” OR “secondhand smoking” AND “ARI due to children under five”. The inclusion criteria were full text, using English language, using cross-sectional study design, and reporting adjusted odds ratio. The collected articles were selected by PRISMA flow chart. The quantitative data were analyzed by fixed effect model using Revman 5.3.

Results: 6 studies from Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, and Nigeria reported that tobacco smoke exposure increased the risk of acute respiratory infection in children under five (aOR=1.39; 95% CI= 1.22 to 1.58; p<0.001).

Conclusion: Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of acute respiratory infection in children under five.

Keywords: tobacco smoke, acute respiratory infection, children under five

Correspondence: Maya Ayu Riestiyowati. Masters Program in Public Health. Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: Mobile: 081235840067.


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