Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients with Covid-19: A Systematic Review


Ratna Yustinawati1), Anhari Achadi2)

1)Master of Public Health Program, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia

2)Department of Health Administration and Policy, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia

 

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2, a new strain of the coronavirus, caused a global outbreak of fatal acute pneumonia. Globally, WHO has recorded 709,511 deaths from COVID-19, and the number is increasing. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for mortality in COVID-19 patients.

Subjects and Method: A systematic review was conducted by searching for articles from ScienceDirect, PubMed, SpringerLink, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The inclusion criteria were open access, English-language, and full-text articles published in journals between 20019 and 2020. The keywords were (Coronavirus Disease 2019 AND clinical characteristics AND epidemiological characteristics AND comorbidities) OR (COVID-19 AND clinical characteristics AND epidemiological characteristics AND comorbidities). A total of eight articles was reviewed to answer the research question. The data were analyzed by PRISMA flow chart.

Results: Based on the reports from China and Korea, a total of 1,314 (100%) COVID-19 patients who died was aged ≥60 years with comorbidity, in which 845 (64%) were male patients. Before the death of patients, the increase D-dimer level of ≥1 μg/ mL and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of ≥4 were reported. It indicated the occurrence of multi-organ failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Most of the comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases.

Conclusion: Risk factors for mortality in COVID-19 patients include age at ≥60 years, male, and presence of comorbidity. The clinical features are D-dimer levels ≥1 μg / mL, high SOFA score (≥4), and ARDS. Comprehensive efforts are needed to identify risk factors early and conduct effective treatment timely to reduce the mortality of COVID-19 patients.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, risk factors, mortality, comorbidity

Correspondence:  Ratna Yustinawati. Master of Public Health Program, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. Email: ratnayustinawati@gmail.com. Mobile: +628179324304.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/the7thicph.01.26

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