Comparison of Mini-Mental State Examination and Clock Drawing Test with Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test in the Elderly with Cognitive Function Impairment in Jetis Sub-District, Yogyakarta

Darren Eduardo William, Mitra Andini Sigilipoe, Widya Christine Manus


School of medicine Universitas Kristen Duta Wacana, Yogyakarta



Background: Dementia is a collective term for several diseases that affect memory, other cognitive abilities, and behavior. These diseases can seriously interfere with people’s ability of daily living. This is not a normal phenomenon of aging. With the increasing prevalence of dementia in the elderly, the importance of dementia as a comorbidity of hypertension is increasing. However, several questions regarding the link between hypertension and dementia remain unresolved. This study aimed to determine Orientation-Memory-Concentration-Test (OMCT) can be used to assess cognitive function in the elderly as an early step in the early detection of dementia.

Subjects and Method: This was a comparative study using a case-control design. The study was conducted in Jetis Sub-District, Yogyakarta from September 2019 to June 2020. A total sample of 110 of elderly was divided into two groups 42 elderly (case), and 68 elderly (control) selected by consecutive sampling using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clock-Drawing Test (CDT) and Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (OMCT). The dependent variables were the sensitivity and specificity level of the OMCT instrument while the scores of the MMSE. The independent variable was CDT instruments. The collected data will then be processed by diagnostic analysis followed by analysis of ROC and Youden’s index to determine the optimal cut off. Respondents are categorized as having impaired cognitive function if the MMSE (cut off ≤ 24) or CDT (cut off <18) shows a positive result.

Results: 110 elderlies were involved. A total of 42 elderlies were included in the case population, and 68 elderlies were included in the control population. In the total OMCT population (cut off> 11) it has a sensitivity (29%) and specificity (97%) to the combination of MMSE and CDT. In populations with hypertension OMCT (cut off> 2.5) has sensitivity (68%) with specificity (46%). In a population without hypertension OMCT (cut off> 7) has a sensitivity (55%) and specificity (90%) to the combination of MMSE and CDT.

Conclusion: OMCT can be used as a screening tool for cognitive dysfunction in older people with hypertension because of its short duration, ease of use, and can be used in patients with visual impairments.

Keywords: Dementia, cognitive dysfunction, OMCT, 6-CIT.

Correspondence: Darren Eduardo William. School of medicine Universitas Kristen Duta Wacana, Yogyakarta. Jl. Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo 5-25 Yogyakarta 55224, Indonesia. Email: Mobile: 0813-4136-9999


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