The Effect of Bullying on Depression in Adolescents in Surakarta: Application of Health Belief Model

Kiyat Sudrajad1,2), RB. Soemanto3), Hanung Prasetya1)


1)Health Polytechnics, Ministry of Health Surakarta

2)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

3)Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Depression is common among adolescents that have been victims of bullying at school or through social media. However, numerous cases of bullying are never reported. Several studies have shown that suicidal ideation is associated with depression in adolescents with bullying. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of bullying on depression in adolescents in Surakarta using Health Belief Model.

Subjects and Method: A cross sectional study was carried out in Surakarta, Central Java, in December 2019. A sample of 250 adolescents was selected for this study randomly. The dependent variable was depression. The independent variables were bullying, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and self-efficacy. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.

Results: Depression increased with bullying (OR= 3.5; 95% CI= 1.70 to 7.25; p= 0.001), strong perceived susceptibility (OR= 2.86; 95% CI= 1.32 to 6.19; p= 0.008), strong perceived severity (OR= 2.65; 95% CI= 1.20 to 5.88; p= 0.016), and weak self-efficacy (OR= 5.26; 95% CI= 2.49 to 11.09; p<0.001).

Conclusion: Depression increases with bullying, strong perceived susceptibility, strong perceived severity, and weak self-efficacy.

Keywords: bullying, depression, health belief model

Correspondence: Kiyat Sudrajad. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: Mobile: +6285647116834.


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