The Role of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine in Prophylaxis of Covid-19: A Literature Review

Dewi Indra Sari1), Mardiati Nadjib2)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia

2)Department of Health Policy Administration, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia



Background: A pandemic potential Covid-19 spread rapidly worldwide. Ministry of Health, Republic  Indonesia  recommended  one  of  the  Covid-19  treatments  with  combination  of hydroxychloroquine/ chloroquine and azithromycin. However, the effectiveness and safety of antimalaria  regime  remain  debating  topic.  This  study  aimed  to  investigate  the  role  of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in prophylaxis of Covid-19.

Subjects  and  Method:  A  systematic  review  was  conducted  by  searching  from  PubMed, SpringerLink, and Cochrane Library databases. The keywords were “prophylaxis”, “chloroquine” OR “hydroxychloroquine” “SARS-CoV-2” OR “Covid-19”. The inclusion criteria were phase IIb clinical trials, double masking, comparative observational studies, open access articles published until August 2020. The exclusion criteria were inaccessible and duplicate articles. The quality of selected articles was critically appraised. The data were reported by PRISMA flow chart.

Results: Three articles out of 117 articles met the criteria inclusion. The findings showed that hydroxychloroquine could not prevent Covid-19 compatible disease or confirmed infections when used as post-exposure prophylaxis. High dose chloroquine was not recommended for critically ill COVID-19 patients because of its potential side effects, especially when administered with azithromycin and oseltamivir. Covid-19 patients with the need for oxygenation were not suggested to use hydroxychloroquine.

Conclusion:  There  is  scarce  evidence  to  support  prophylaxis  and  treatment  effects  of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients. Further research on the safety and use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine is required in the management of Covid-19.

Keywords: prophylaxis, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, SARS-CoV-2, Covid-19

Correspondence: Dewi Indra Sari. Masters Program in Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java. Email: Mobile: +628121983-6600.


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