Toilet Training in Children with Autism: A Scoping Review

Putri Yuliantie, Mufdlilah


Faculty of Public Health, Universitas ‘Aisyiyah Yogyakarta



Background: Skill deficits in self-help areas could be significant obstacle to individuals diagnosed with autism and other disabilities in growth. Education of autistic children who require specialized services needs to address broad issues of learning including toilet training with the support of parents, caregivers, and schools staff. This study aimed to identify and review the toilet training approach to children diagnosed with autism.

Subjects and Method: A scoping review method was conducted in eight stages including (1) Identification of study problems; (2) Determining priority problem and study question; (3) Determining framework; (4) Literature searching; (5) Article selec­tion; (6) Critical appraisal; (7) Data extraction; and (8) Mapping. The search included EBSCO, Willey Online library, and ScienceDirect databases. The inclusion criteria were English-language and full-text articles published between 2009 and 2019. A total of 10 full text articles was obtained. After the review process, eight articles were eligible. The data were reported by the PRISMA flow chart.

Results: Six articles obtained A grade and one article obtained B grade with design studies of qualitative, case-control, quasi-experiment, and guidelines conducted in developed countries. Two mains thematic of toilet training reviewed were process (including intensive toilet training, no diaper use, schedule for bathroom visits, and visual communication) and method (including gaming and modeling video).

Conclusion: Implementation of toilet training in autistic children can be focused on the process including intensive toilet training, no diaper use, schedule for bathroom visits, and visual communication with the support and commitment of parents, caregivers, or school staff by the approach to gaming and modeling video method.

Keywords: toilet training, autism, children

Correspondence: Putri Yuliantie. Universitas Aisyiyah Yogyakarta. Jl. Siliwangi (Ring Road Barat) No. 63 Mlangi, Nogotirto, Gamping, Sleman, Yogyakarta. 55292. Email: Mobile: +6282152988980.


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