Biological and Social-Economic Determinants of Child Development: A Path Analysis Evidence from Surabaya, East Java

Ajeng Ayu Titah Pujangkara1), Harsono Salimo2)Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari3)


1)Masters Program inPublic Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta

3)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Previous study reported that numerous nutritional-related interventions have been shown to improve health aspect for young children. However, social and economic factors also played an indirect role to their nutritional and health fulfillment. The purpose of this study was to examine biological and social-economic determinants of child development using path analysis model.

Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional design. The study was carried out at early childhood education programs (PAUD) in Wonokromo Sub-district, Surabaya, East Java. A sample of 200 children aged 2-5 years old from 25 PAUD was selected by simple random sampling. The dependent variable was child development. The independent variables were nutritional status, exclusive breastfeeding, number of children, family income, maternal education, and maternal employment status. The data were analyzed by path analysis.

Results: Child developmental disorder directly increased with poor nutritional status (b= 0.95; 95% CI= 0.03 to 1.86; p= 0.041), low family income (b= 2.01; 95% CI= 1.13 to 2.90; p < 0.001), mothers working outside the home (b= 0.85; 95% CI= 0.07 to 1.63; p= 0.032), exclusive breastfeeding (b= 2.05; 95% CI= 1.23 to 2.86; p<0.001), and number of children ≥2 (b= 1.21; 95% CI= 0.20 to 2.23; p= 0.019). Child developmental disorders indirectly increased with maternal education.

Conclusion: Child developmental disorder directly increases with poor nutritional status, low family income, mothers working outside the home, exclusive breastfeeding, and number of children ≥2. Child developmental disorder indirectly increases with maternal education.

Keywords: child development, biological, social-economic determinants

Correspondence: Ajeng Ayu Titah Pujangkara. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: Mobile: +628116119511.


Share this :

View PDF