Factors Affecting the Use of Antenatal Care in Semarang, Central Java: Application of Health Belief Model

Widyawati1), Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari2), Bhisma Murti1)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: In the field of health-care education, theories and models help us to explain and predict behaviors to conduct effective health-care educational programs for changing behaviors. The Health Belief Model (HBM) contains several primary concepts by which individuals evaluate themselves to take action to change their behaviors, including antenatal care uptake in pregnant women. This study aimed to examine factors affecting the use of antenatal care.

Subjects and Method: A cross sectional study was carried out in Semarang, Central Java, from June to August 2020. A sample of 250 pregnant women was selected by simple random sampling. The dependent variable was antenatal care. The independent variables were attitude, knowledge, information, self-efficacy, perceived seriousness, perceived susceptibility, perceived barrier, perceived benefit, cues to action, husband support, and facilities. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multiple logistic regression.

Results: Complete antenatal care increased with strong support (OR= 38.97; 95% CI= 3.19 to 476.53; p= 0.004), high knowledge (OR= 16.44; 95% CI= 2.54 to 106.60; p= 0.003), positive attitude (OR= 29.88; 95% CI= 2.88 to 309.92; p= 0.004), high information toward antenatal care (OR= 31.42; 95% CI= 4.07 to 242.41; p= 0.001), strong self-efficacy (OR= 7.85; 95% CI= 1.50 40.99; p= 0.015), strong cues to action (OR= 11.97; 95% CI= 2.01 to 71.36; p= 0.006), high perceived seriousness (OR= 32.99; 95% CI= 3.93 to 276.98; p= 0.001), high perceived susceptibility (OR= 24.29; 95% CI= 2.50 to 235.78; p= 0.006), high perceived benefit (OR= 30.43; 95% CI= 2.99 to 308.80; p= 0.004), high perceived barrier (OR= 0.07; 95% CI= 0.01 to 0.57; p= 0.013) and complete facilities (OR= 63.52; 95% CI= 3.62 to 1115.08; p= 0.005).

Conclusion: Complete antenatal care increases with strong support, high knowledge, positive attitude, high information toward antenatal care, strong self-efficacy, strong cues to action, high perceived seriousness, high perceived susceptibility, high perceived benefit, high perceived barrier and complete facilities.

Keywords: antenatal care, health facility, Health Belief Model

Correspondence: Widyawati. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: widyawatichin1412@gmail.com. Mobile: +6285742919076.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26911/the7thicph.03.117

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