The Associations between Cigarette Smoke Exposure, Family History of Infertility, and the Risk of Infertility among Women in Reproductive Age, in Surakarta, Central Java

Luthfia Zauma1), Uki Retno Budhiastuti2), Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari3)


1)Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret

2)Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta

3)Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret



Background: Previous studies suggest that tobacco use affects systems of the human body involved in the reproductive process. Tobacco smoke exposure affects uterine receptivity, which may lead the risk of infertility. This study aimed to investigate the associations between cigarette smoke exposure, family history of infertility, and the risk of infertility among women in reproductive age.

Subjects and Method: A case control study was conducted at obstetrics and gynecology polyclinic and Sekar fertility clinic, in Dr. Moewardi hospital, Surakarta, Central Java, from October to November 2019. A sample of 200 reproductive age women was selected by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was infertility. The independent variables were age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, endometriosis, family history of infertility, smoking exposure, and stress. The data were obtained from medical record and questionnaire. The data were analyzed by a multiple linear regression.

Results: The risk of infertility increased with age ≥35 years (b= 1.24; 95% CI= 0.18 to 2.30; p= 0.012), BMI <18 or ≥25 (b= 2.76; 95% CI= 1.74 to 3.76; p<0.001), high physical activity (b= 1.44; 95% CI= 0.38 to 2.51; p= 0.009), endometriosis (b= 1.06; 95% CI= 0.06 to 2.05; p= 0.038), tobacco smoke exposure (b= 1.37; 95% CI= 0.30 to 2.43; p= 0.012), and severe stress (b= 1.07; 95% CI= 0.16 to 2.00; p= 0.022).

Conclusion: The risk of infertility increases with age ≥35 years, BMI <18 or ≥25, high physical activity, endometriosis, smoke exposure, and severe stress.

Keywords: infertility, women of reproductive age

Correspondence: Luthfia Zauma. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: Mobile: 081337977377.


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