Validity and Reliability Test of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire with Formal and Informal Sector Workers

Aulia Chairani


Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine UPN “Veteran” Jakarta



Background: Musculoskeletal Disorders are one of the most common reasons patients seek medical care. Musculoskeletal diseases are still the main source of disability and lost working time. Understanding the reasons, especially work-related reasons, is still the key to primary prevention. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) can serve as an inexpensive instrument for the identification and assessment of musculoskeletal risks in workers. This study aimed to determine validity and reliability test of the Nordic Musculoskeletal questionnaire with formal and informal sector workers.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study. The subject of 2 groups of workers, namely formal and informal workers. The data were collected by in-depth interview and questionnaire. The stages of this study were: (1) the construct validity test was carried out by comparing the results of filling in the self-administered NMQ with the results of the interviews (2) the criteria validity test was carried out by comparing the effects of filling out the questionnaire with a physical examination. (3) The test and retest reliability test was done by calculating the correlation coefficient between the first and second filling which is seven days apart.

Results: The results of the construct validity test showed a similarity (100%) between the self-administered NMQ and the interview results and the specificity value was obtained in the lower back, neck and shoulder region above (85%) with a specificity value reaching (100%). Reliability test results obtained Cronbach’s Alpha value above (0.945) which means that the reliability is excellent. The Indonesian version of the NMQ questionnaire was declared valid and reliable for use on workers in Indonesia.

Conclusion: The instrument that was invented can clarify workers who have real pain in the lower back, neck and shoulders.

Keywords: cross cultural adaptation, musculoskeletal disorders, nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire, validity and reliability

Correspondence: Aulia Chairani. Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine UPN “Veteran” Jakarta. Jl. RS Fatmawati, Pondok Labu, Jakarta Selatan 12450. Email: Mobile: (021) 7656971.


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